about Hair Color
-by Mike Trobee
is the rage. Why? Baby-Boomers.
There are more people in the US with gray hair than ever before
in history. There are several ways to cover the gray:
Permanent Color- Most permanent color uses peroxide (10 to 40
vol.) and ammonia. It covers gray the best. The draw back is
regrowth of new hair. It is a different shade and will leave
a line of "demarcation."
Demi-Permanent Color- Uses peroxide but in low vols. (5-7).
Many have no ammonia and leave little damage. When the color
fades, it does gradually. It leaves no line of demarcation.
Semi- Permanent Color- They are "fun" colors, meaning
they will last a short time(1-4) weeks. They usually incur no
damage to the hair. The best to expect is 40%-60% gray coverage
a Color Rinse (semi-permanent)-They are fun but a waste. Go
with a demi. Rinses are great as toners. They are great to cut
down unwanted tones in the hair. For the money go for a demi
or permanent color.
to give to your Colorist:
1. Lightly mist hair prior to color application with an acid
2 Prior to rinsing the color, apply an acidifying conditioner.
Wait 1-3 minutes and rinse, then shampoo.
3. As a follow up to color treated hair use: an acid based moisturizing
conditioners with sunscreens.
Temporary - color lasts from one shampoo to the next and is
deposited on the outside of the hair shaft.
Semi-Temporary - color lasts up to 4-6 shampoos.
Semi-Permanent - color is for masking white or light hair and
lasts 2 to 6weeks.
Permanent - color formulas change the natural hair color. They
require maintenance to new hair growth after 4 to 6 weeks.(For
the purposes of this guide we will be discussing Permanent colors
and methods of processing only.)
Before any permanent color can be deposited into the hair shaft,
the cuticle, or outer layer, must be opened. The insoluble formula
then reacts with the cortex, or middle layer, to deposit or
remove the color.The color is available in a variety of forms;
creams, gels or tubes, or shampoos. These will not permanently
change the hair color until they are part of an oxidation chemical
reaction.The Oxidizing Agent or Developer is hydrogen peroxide
in one of various forms and strengths. lt is the catalyst or
cause of the chemical reaction which allows the formula to permanently
alter the hair's color.The strength of the developer - is determined
by the desired results and the manufacturer's directions.
10 Volume - Color deposit with only slight lightening.
20 Volume - Maximum color deposit as for gray or white hair
30 Volume - . Strong lightening action with less color deposit.
Bleaching Boosters - can be added to increase lifting action.
Consult manufacturer's instructions. Too much developer and
the color may not have good highlights, cover poorly, not lift
to the correct level and fade more quickly.
If you know
the color wheel color becomes easy...
It may sound a bit odd but your hair is a mixture of 3 colors;
red yellow, and blue. These are the primary colors. Secondary
colors are orange, green, and violet. If you look at the "wheel"
a color opposite (directly across) will "negate" that
color. This means if your hair is a orange color - green will
make it a brown color. If you hair has a yellow tone, violet
will cancel it out.One of the most important elements of hair
coloring is determining the hairs' "underlying pigment."
When you chose a color in a swatch book, your hair may not come
out that color because of the underlying pigment in your hair.
Underlying color + Artificial color = Final Result
Tone: refers to whether a color is warm or cool. The warm colors
(highlighting) are red, orange and yellow. The cool (ash) colors
are blue, green, and violet.Level: indicates the degree of lightness
or darkness of a color. Every color can be made either lighter
or darker, thus changing the level, by the addition of white
or black. Hair colors, both natural and color-treated , are
classified by level from 1 to 10. 1 indicates black, and 10
indicates the lightest blonde.Saturation: refers to the degree
of concentration or amount of pigment in the color.
A pigment called melanin is responsible for hair color. There
are 2 types of melanin found in the hair. Eumelanin, is the
most common type, it gives the hair shades from brown to black.
Phaeomelanin, gives the hair yellowish-blond tones and ginger
and red colors. Total absence of pigment produces white (grey)
of Hair Color
2=Very Dark Brown
9=Very Light Blonde
10=Light Platinum Blonde
About 80% of the hair consists of elongated cells (cortical
cells) of a fibroid structure (macro-fibrils, micro fibrils).
The cortex determines the THICKNESS, ELASTICITY and STRENGTH
of the hair. It is also responsible for housing all of the hairs'
natural COLOR PIGMENTS.
COLOR PIGMENTS found in the cortical layer are in the form of
minute melanin granules. These granulized color pigments are
stored in tiny sacks called ALVEOLUS (ALVEOLI). In healthy hair,
light reflected from the cuticle surface produces a soft sheen
This sheen is referred to as "the transparency of a hair
color." At the same time, the pigments gleam through the
cuticle. This is what makes up the unmistakable shades of color
in the hair. The cortex can be damages by:
1. TOO STRONG DEVELOPER (OXIDIZERS)
2. BRUSHING AND DRYING
3. PERMS AND NON-SUITABLE SHAMPOOS
This means that the haircolor does not last as long and that
the hair becomes brittle, dry, dull and not easy to comb.
FINE HAIR Fine hair can be damaged easily as compared to thicker
or coarser hair. Penetration of chemicals and products occurs
faster on fine hair due to the fact that fine hair has less
cuticle layers, and sometimes the layers themselves are thinner.
The Haircolorist needs to keep this in mind when working with
fine textured hair.
Coarse hair is larger in diameter. Coarse hair will have more
cuticle layers, and sometimes the layers themselves can be thicker.
This type of hair is sometimes more resistant to haircolor and
HOW AMMONIA. DEVELOPERS AND HEAT AFFECT THE HAIR STRUCTURE
Ammonia is used in permanent (oxidative) haircolor. When the
permanent haircolor and the developers come together, the action
of ammonia begins. Like all alkaline, the ammonia has the tendency
to separate the cuticle and allows the permanent haircolor to
penetrate the cortex of the hair. The ammonia has an effect
on the sulfur bonds of the hair. If the ammonia is too harsh,
the hair will lose more of the sulfur bonds than necessary.
It will cause the hair to harden, lose weight and diameter.
The higher the volume of the developer, the greater the amount
of sulfur is removed from the hair structure. This is one of
the reasons why the limitations of the developers be maintained
at 30 volume or less for the majority of haircoloring. When
we lighten natural hair, the oxidation of the melanin will give
a reduction of the natural pigments. Decoloration will have
an effect on the natural pigments. They will act especially
on the granular pigments and will act progressively as the action
of the decoloration takes place. The granular pigments will
transform into diffused pigments which explains the apparitions
of the reflect more or less intense as the decoloration processes.
High heat and the length of time high heat is used on the hair
will also reduce the structure of the hair. The hair will lose
its elasticity. Damage to the cuticle of the hair will make
it more breakable. Steam will form inside the hair shaft which
in turn will burst hair by breaking it. This is why we need
to limit the amount of heat as well as the length of time you
dry the hair.